Coeliac Disease

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Coeliac Disease is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine. It is triggered by the consumption of gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. This condition can cause a wide range of symptoms and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated. In this article, we will explore the various symptoms of Coeliac Disease and discuss its diagnosis, treatment, and management.

Abdominal Pain and Bloating

One of the most common symptoms of Coeliac Disease is abdominal pain and bloating. Individuals with this condition often experience discomfort and a feeling of fullness in their stomach. This can be attributed to the inflammation and damage caused to the lining of the small intestine when gluten is consumed.

Diarrhea and Constipation

Coeliac Disease can also lead to gastrointestinal issues such as diarrhea and constipation. The damaged small intestine is unable to properly absorb nutrients, leading to changes in bowel movements. Some individuals may experience frequent loose stools, while others may have difficulty passing stools.

Fatigue and Weight Loss

Chronic fatigue and unexplained weight loss are common symptoms of Coeliac Disease. The body’s inability to absorb essential nutrients due to the damaged small intestine can result in a lack of energy and unintentional weight loss. These symptoms can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life.

Anemia and Skin Rash

Coeliac Disease can cause deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals, leading to anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is particularly common in individuals with this condition. Additionally, some individuals may develop a skin rash known as dermatitis herpetiformis, which is characterized by itchy and blistering skin.

Depression, Anxiety, and Irritability

Mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and irritability can be associated with Coeliac Disease. The exact relationship between these conditions is not fully understood, but it is believed that the inflammation caused by gluten consumption may contribute to these symptoms. It is important for individuals with Coeliac Disease to address their mental health concerns alongside their physical health.

Joint Pain

Joint pain and inflammation can occur in individuals with Coeliac Disease. This symptom is often attributed to the body’s immune response to gluten, which can cause inflammation in various parts of the body, including the joints. Managing inflammation through a gluten-free diet can help alleviate joint pain.


Coeliac Disease has been linked to fertility issues in both men and women. The inflammation and nutrient deficiencies associated with this condition can affect reproductive health. It is important for individuals struggling with infertility to consider Coeliac Disease as a potential underlying cause.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosing Coeliac Disease involves a combination of blood tests and a small intestine biopsy. Blood tests can detect the presence of certain antibodies associated with the condition, while a biopsy confirms the presence of damage to the small intestine. Once diagnosed, the primary treatment for Coeliac Disease is a strict gluten-free diet.

Gluten-Free Diet

A gluten-free diet involves avoiding all foods and products that contain gluten. This includes wheat, barley, rye, and any processed foods that may contain hidden sources of gluten. It is essential for individuals with Coeliac Disease to carefully read food labels and be aware of cross-contamination risks.

Here are some tips for following a gluten-free diet:

  • Choose naturally gluten-free foods such as fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and fish.
  • Opt for gluten-free grains like rice, quinoa, and corn.
  • Read food labels carefully and look for gluten-free certifications.
  • Avoid cross-contamination by using separate cooking utensils and avoiding shared toasters or deep fryers.
  • Join support groups or seek guidance from a registered dietitian specializing in Coeliac Disease.


Coeliac Disease is a chronic autoimmune disorder that requires lifelong management through a strict gluten-free diet. It is important for individuals experiencing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, weight loss, anemia, skin rash, depression, anxiety, irritability, joint pain, and infertility to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. By following a gluten-free diet and addressing any associated health concerns, individuals with Coeliac Disease can lead healthy and fulfilling lives.

Haroon Rashid, MD
Rate author
Urgent Care Center of Arlington, VA
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