Disease database

Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus. It is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected blackflies. This disease primarily affects individuals living in remote and rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as some parts of Latin America and Yemen. Onchocerciasis can cause a range of symptoms, including skin rash, itching, nodules under the skin, blindness, vision impairment, and eye pain. In this article, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for onchocerciasis.

The Impact of Onchocerciasis

Onchocerciasis has a significant impact on the affected individuals and communities. The disease is characterized by intense itching and skin rash, which can lead to severe discomfort and social stigma. The presence of nodules under the skin is another common symptom, often causing pain and swelling.

However, the most devastating consequence of onchocerciasis is its effect on vision. The parasitic worms can migrate to the eyes, leading to vision impairment and, in some cases, blindness. The loss of vision can have profound socio-economic implications, as it affects individuals’ ability to work, care for their families, and participate in their communities.

Transmission and Life Cycle

The life cycle of Onchocerca volvulus involves both humans and blackflies. The adult female worms release thousands of microscopic larvae, called microfilariae, into the bloodstream of infected individuals. When a blackfly bites an infected person, it ingests these microfilariae along with the blood. Inside the blackfly, the microfilariae develop into infective larvae over a period of 7 to 14 days.

When the infected blackfly bites another person, it injects the infective larvae into the skin. The larvae then migrate to the subcutaneous tissues, where they mature into adult worms over several months. The adult worms can live for up to 15 years and produce millions of microfilariae, perpetuating the cycle of transmission.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

The symptoms of onchocerciasis typically manifest years after the initial infection. The early stages of the disease are often asymptomatic, making it challenging to diagnose and treat in its early stages. However, as the infection progresses, individuals may experience skin rash, intense itching, and the formation of nodules under the skin.

When the worms migrate to the eyes, they can cause severe eye pain, vision impairment, and eventually blindness. The presence of microfilariae in the skin can also lead to a condition known as “leopard skin,” characterized by depigmentation and thickening of the skin.

Diagnosing onchocerciasis involves a combination of clinical examination, skin snip biopsy, and serological tests. Skin snip biopsy involves taking a small sample of skin from the affected individual and examining it under a microscope for the presence of microfilariae. Serological tests detect antibodies against the parasite in the blood.

Treatment and Prevention

While there is no cure for onchocerciasis, the disease can be managed and its impact minimized through various interventions. The primary treatment for onchocerciasis is the drug ivermectin, which kills the microfilariae and prevents them from reproducing. Ivermectin is typically administered annually or semi-annually to affected communities, targeting both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals.

In addition to drug treatment, vector control measures can help reduce the transmission of onchocerciasis. This includes the use of insecticide-treated bed nets and larviciding to target blackfly breeding sites. Health education and community mobilization are also crucial in raising awareness about the disease and promoting preventive measures.


Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is a debilitating disease that affects millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Yemen. It causes a range of symptoms, including skin rash, itching, nodules under the skin, blindness, vision impairment, and eye pain. The impact of onchocerciasis on individuals and communities is significant, affecting their quality of life and socio-economic well-being.

While there is no cure for onchocerciasis, the disease can be managed through drug treatment and preventive measures. Annual or semi-annual administration of ivermectin helps control the infection and prevent further transmission. Vector control measures, such as the use of bed nets and larviciding, also play a crucial role in reducing the spread of the disease.

Efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis have made significant progress in recent years, with several countries achieving remarkable reductions in disease prevalence. However, continued investment in research, treatment, and prevention is necessary to ultimately eradicate this devastating disease and improve the lives of millions of affected individuals.

Haroon Rashid, MD
Rate author
Urgent Care Center of Arlington, VA
Add a comment